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What causes eye strain when viewing any display?

Few everyday experiences:

  1. Staring at the physical paper (or any other sight in nature) doesn’t cause eye strain.
  2. Staring at the LCD screen causes eye strain.

Some of the differences in properties I have isolated so far are:

  1. Refresh rate, that how often picture updates itself. For LCD like display, it is finite, but for the physical paper (viewing up, down or turning page) it is instantaneous (infinity),

  2. Most common LCD emits backlight to project image, whereas physical paper reflects light.

  3. Other effects like glare, blue light (harmful light which disturbs sleep cycle) which is absent in physical paper but present in most of the LCDs.

(3.1) The physical paper doesn’t distort contrast or image quality whereas LCD can sometimes. Although I am not sure how giving an inaccurate description (which is a different problem) can cause eye strain.

So I want to ask what makes up a favourable viewing experience from a biologist perspective.

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