What ways can a character (PC or Monster) prevent an enemy from casting counterspell?
What I can think of so far:
- Surprise the enemy and win initiative
- Cause the enemy to be incapacitated (or stunned/paralyzed/unconscious)
- Provoke the enemy into using a reaction earlier in the round (readied action, opportunity attack, previous spell)
- Avoid using perceivable spell components
- Sorcerer subtle spell metamagic
- Level 20 Druid Archdruid feature
- Casting a spell with only material components (eg. Minor Illusion)
- Prevent somatic components
- The enemy is holding objects in both hands
- Block line of sight while casting the spell (As Medix2 linked the spell can be readied behind cover)
- Spells, Items, or Abilities such as Fog Cloud, Darkness, etc. that create areas of Heavy Obscurement
- Use a spell or item that grants invisibility or heavy obscurement to a creature (Shadow of Moil, Invisibility)
- Physical barriers such as walls or large creatures
Are there any other options available that I am missing? I would be interested both in a generic option that is missing and in any specific strategies that are not equivalent to something on my list.