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Latent Heat and the effect of cooling a liquid when phase transitioning

So after reading about this topic i wanted to share what i learned and i wanted you guys to tell me if what i am writting is correct: So imagine that some liquefied gas like propane or butane (it is only one gas inside the cylynder) is inside the vessel and it is liquefied at […]

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Openbabel is not converting Gaussian Z-matrix

I ran into an issue when OpenBabel (a great and extremely useful problem) could not convert my custom-generated Gaussian Z-matrix to XYZ format. The problem is that probably major flaw of OpenBabel are very terse error messages (mostly just “0 molecules converted“, and even with —errorlevel 25 option I got only: ============================== *** Open Babel […]

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Latent Heat and the effect of cooling a liquid when phase transitioning

So after reading about this topic i wanted to share what i learned and i wanted you guys to tell me if what i am writting is correct: So imagine that some liquefied gas like propane or butane (it is only one gas inside the cylynder) is inside the vessel and it is liquefied at […]

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Can ZrO2 be made fluoride resistant?

I love ZrO2! It has great properties, biocompatibility, chemical resistance, decent scratch resistance, great thermal resistance and refraction, but it could be better. It, like glass, will slowly react with HF and other fluorine substances, specifically oxidizing agents with fluorine. Normally to make stuff resistant to fluorine the only thing to do is react it […]

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Effect of clemmensen reagent on 4-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid

When I first solved the question, I had reduced the ketonic group. Then as the medium is acidic the -OH in carboxylic acid, will get protonated and there will be formation of stable carbocation and it will attach to the benzene ring. I hope you get it. But in the answer, the carboxylic acid retained […]

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Verb for Sorption

Slightly silly question! Intuitively I want the present-simple verb for sorption to be “sorps”, but saying it out loud, “sorbs” sounds much more natural. However, Google doesn’t turn anything up for either of these, and they both make me sound like a redneck. Since it definitely does not seem to be used often, it seems […]

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What is the difference between enthalpy change and energy change?

This question seems really dumb but I rather be safe than sorry. I read about enthalpy change in my chemistry textbook which defines enthalpy change as the energy exchange between a chemical reaction and the surroundings at constant pressure. My confusion came from when I read this BBC Bitesize page about energy change, can someone […]

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Do quantum particles have mass?

Quantum particles are never objects but are always waves. But do they have mass or can they carry mass?

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Calcium Chloride Hexahydrate & Anhydrous

Good Afternoon All, Please can someone tell me if Calcium Chloride Hexahydrate and Anhydrous are the same thing? Thanks, Josh

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Bond strength and length of HF and H2O

I know that acidity of an acid increases across a period(with electronegativity increase of the atom bonded to hydrogen) and hence HF is more acidic than H2O or NH3. But the reason I learnt it is this way, is that difference in electronegativities of the atoms increases and hence bond becomes more polar and weaker( […]