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What differentiates diseases like Covid-19 and Polio from the common cold

Why are vaccines required for our body’s immune system to destroy viruses that cause the likes of Covid-19 or Polio, while viruses that cause the common-cold are self-limiting (go away on their own)? What is so different about viruses that cause diseases requiring vaccines?

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Bird-identification

My cat came home with this bird which i can’t recognize. It was kind of small, like a sparrow. I live in Switzerland. Can someone tell me what kind of bird this is?

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Why does Porous-tube Nutrient Delivery System cultivation improve nutritional quality of Okinawa spinach (Gyruna bicolor)?

I wrote a review paper and it involves in growth system of a plant “Okinawa Spinach (Gynura bicolor)”. A research of (Wang, Fu, & Liu, 2015) reported that Porous-tube Nutrient Delivery System (PTNDS) cultivation enhanced calories from 139.5 to 182.3 kJ/100 g dry matter, and carbohydrate from 4.8 to 7.3 g/100 g dry matter and […]

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How do I interpret this restriction reaction electrophoresis result?

Here is the result of electrophoresis after a restriction reaction. Since I have never seen such long bands, I don’t know how to interpret the result. I don’t know what red regions indicate and why we obtained such long bands. And I wonder why other wells look empty although they were actually loaded (some of […]

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low gene expression in BL21(DE3) strain containing two vectors

I’ve been trying to express two proteins in a BL21(DE3) strain of E. coli one gene in a pCR2.1 vector and the other in a pET-expression vector when I induce with IPTG and run on acrylamide gel I only get one protein the one in the pCR2.1 construct. If I transform the BL21(DE3) cells with […]

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Are there any detrimental effects to long term electrical muscle stimulation?

I know that different types of electrical stimulation can be used in fields such as physical therapy to get muscles to contract. However, these electrical stimulation sessions are not prolonged and contiguous. Does anybody know if stimulating muscles to contract and retract for an extended and continuous period of time has negative side effects? Does […]

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Where can I find the genome of the L-strain coronavirus and the S-strain coronavirus?

I read an interesting article about two strains of the coronavirus: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2236544-coronavirus-are-there-two-strains-and-is-one-more-deadly/ I would like to know how the scientists used to classify a coronavirus as l-strain and s-strain. And more specifically I would like to have the genome(The DNA) for a l-strain and a s-strain.

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Large study showing that attraction to only the same sex has to do with your genes, published where?

Can someone please help me out and find and link me the study from a couple of years ago that showed how only same sex attraction, when the male cant become attracted to a woman, it has to do with genes?, it was a large study and a first of its kind, maybe from 2016-2018, […]

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NCBI SRA database sample: control vs test

I was trying to download some data from NCBI SRA (SRA059451). There are 27 samples available for SRA059451. But i am unable to understand which samples are ‘control’ and ‘test’ samples. Please help me regarding how to differentiate the samples.

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How are Viruses Genetically Modified?

Okay everyone, so I get that you can perform lysis on a bacterium to extract the plasmid, then alter the plasmid using restriction enzymes and ligase, and re insert it back into the bacterium with chemical or heat treatment in order to modify the bacterium to produce, human insulin for example. How do you modify, […]