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Cancer: what does it mean “at presentation”?

Unclear to me what this means: "Objective The biological heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes prognosis difficult. We translate the results of a genome-wide high-throughput analysis into a tool that accurately predicts at presentation tumour growth and survival of patients with HCC." Reference

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How do the plants prevent from being infected from retroviruses?

Why do plants are not affected by animal viruses such as retroviruses? What makes them prevent the infection?

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Why is the number of cells virtually a constant?

Going back to highschool, I learnt about mitosis: in order to renew their cells, eucaryots’ cells divide themselves into two copies. But my course didn’t cover what moderate the replication. By moderation, I mean something that prevent the number of cells to grow forever. So here is my question: What phenomena are responsible for the […]

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What does ΔC and ΔN mean with regards to a protein sequence?

I am reading a paper about the regulation of the nuclear export of the protein GSK3 and I have come across the following statement: Full-length FLAG epitope-tagged mFrat1 (FLAG-Frat) and the amino-terminal half of Frat (ΔC Frat) localized predominantly to the cytoplasm of transfected MDCK cells (Fig. 1, A and B, i and iii). Unexpectedly, […]

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Why Nobel Prize didn’t considered “genome editing” as Physiology or Medicine subject?

"Genome editing" is clearly Physiology or Medicine subject, but Nobel prize kept it under chemistry field. Why so? Source

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What is the consensus in the scientific community over COVID-19’s mode of transmission?

I’ve read from many news and scientific sources that COVID spreads primarily through respiratory droplets, but I’ve also read multiple sources that have said we don’t entirely know yet. Is it fomites, droplets, or aerosols? Is it some combination? Do we have a complete understanding of it? With how infectious the B117 variant appears to […]

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Will Fst (inbreeding coefficient) always be a value close or at 0 in asexual populations?

FST is the average inbreeding coefficient of a total population. The equation is: FST = variance of s / variance of t Variance S = variance in the frequency of the allele between different subpopulations, weighted by the sizes of subpopulations Variance T = variance of the allelic state in the total population If FST […]

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online forums – why?

Does anyone know what drives an individual to interact with and learn from/educate other individuals on the internet? Does it make a difference if this hypothetical person is told they are engaging with AI? I would like to trace the evolutionary developments from our behavior now, as beings on social media, or on older platforms […]

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THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FOETAL HAEMOGLOBIN AND MYOGLOBIN (with respect to oxygen affinity)

The notes that I have on this topic only compare foetal haemoglobin to adult haemoglobin and myoglobin to adult haemoglobin. I know that foetal haemoglobin and myoglobin both have a higher oxygen affinity than adult haemoglobin but I don’t know if what the difference is in oxygen affinity between foetal haemoglobin and myoglobin Can someone […]

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Would it be possible to attach a device to the optic nerves

Put a small wireless transmitter with a storage unit and a battery in a little disc that can be attached to the temple, and connected to the nerves in between the eyes and brain, to backpack off it, this way, the stuff the eyes “see” also gets downloaded to the transmitter, which can be emptied […]